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Researchers at the FEMTO-ST Institute in Besançon, France studied methods for fabricating lithium niobate ridges to be used for the development of programmable microcomponents.

Using a scanning electron microscope, they imaged ridge sides then reconstructed a 3D model of the zone with MountainsSEM® software.

Surface roughness (Sa) was then calculated.

Images courtesy of Roland Salut & Marina Raschetti, Femto-ST


Mountains® tools used

  • Stereo reconstruction operator

The Stereoscopic reconstruction operator was used to calculate a 3D image from two SEM images obtained using different tilt angles. The resulting 3D view is shown with the rainbow color palette, traditionally used to express height on a physical map: the lowest points are blue (the sea), the planes are green, the mountains red and the highest points are white (snow-capped peaks).


  • ISO 25178 height parameters

Parameters including roughness (Sa) were generated from the reconstructed 3D model.


Instrument & software used

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) + MountainsSEM® software