from 4 SEM images
Learn how to turn 4 scanning electron microscope images into a measurable 3D model.
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from a SEM stereo pair
Learn how to turn a stereo pair of scanning electron microscope images into a measurable 3D model.
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3D reconstruction of surface topography in 3 seconds plus surface metrology - 3D reconstruction from 2 SEM images of a periodic physical reference standard obtained at FEMTO-ST laboratory. Measurements of step heights and pitch confirm that the 3D reconstruction corresponds to reference standard dimensions
Reconstruct 3D surfaces (X, Y and Z in length units) in a matter of seconds from two SEM images obtained at different tilt angles, from a single anaglyph image, and from four images obtained using a 4 quadrant detector.
Turn single gray scale SEM images into 3D enhanced color images, also in seconds.
View 3D surface topography at any zoom level, angle and height amplification in real time.
Colorize – automatic colorization using two selected colors – colored 3D intensity maps using configurable palettes.
Enhance images and rendering - use optimized color palettes, select lighting conditions, remove anomalies, overlay semi-transparent SEM gray-level images on 3D colored topography, etc.
Convert single SEM images into pseudo-3D intensity maps.
Correct gray level drift – for example to remove variation in homogeneous phases.
Extract 2D cross sections from 3D surfaces.
3D enhancement of a single SEM image.
Example: structure on a ladybug. (SEM image: Chris Supranowitz, University of Rochester).
Gray level drift correction of a single BSE SEM image. Before correction there is variation in two homogeneous phases along the colored lines. Colorization highlights the variation. After drift correction each phase of the material is colored uniformly and a phase map is obtained. Metrics can be generated on surface composition, for example on the ratios between different phases. (SEM image courtesy of the School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh.)
Analyze lateral or topographical geometry – analyze dimensions of extracted profile contours and cross-sections – calculate distances, angles, areas, volumes and step heights.
Compare reconstructed surfaces with nominal form (sphere, cylinder, plane or polynomial).
Assess ISO form deviation (flatness, straightness, roundness).
Contour analysis of microfossil1
1 Microfossil image courtesy of Dr. Hannes Grobe, Hannover, Germany, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.
Analyze surface roughness and waviness – apply the latest ISO 16610 filtering techniques.
Calculate 2D and 3D surface texture parameters - from Ra to ISO 25178 and ASME B46.1.
Carry out functional studies - bearing ratio curve - depth distribution histogram - material/void ratios within a surface slice – wear volume assessment.
Advanced parameters for specialized applications are available in optional modules if required.
3D reconstruction and surface analysis – separated form, waviness and roughness surfaces and ISO 25178 height parameters.
Colocalize SEM images from different detectors - for example colocalize a secondary electron image with a backscattered electron image.
Colocalize SEM images with images from other microscopes (light microscopes, AFMs, STMs, NSOMs, …)..
Colocalize SEM images with surface topography obtained by scanning probe microscopes – overlay SEM images on SPM 3D surface topography (requires SPM Extension optional module).
AFM/SEM colocalization - zone extracted from AFM surface topography is colocalized with SEM BSE image - SEM image is overlaid on 3D topography (with adjustable transparency).2
2 AFM-SEM colocalization and overlay images courtesy of LNE (French National Metrology Institute).
Work in a smart user environment in your own language and generate multi-page analysis reports – comprehensive illustrated online help in 10 languages with examples.
Trace analysis steps in the hierarchical analysis workflow and fine tune steps on the fly.
Preview analysis document pages and navigate using the page viewer.
Automatically analyze new image sets by applying existing documents as templates.
Speed up analysis report creation using Minidocs – sequences of analysis steps saved as macros.
Easy post-processing and publication using standard tools - Excel-compatible text export for all numerical data - high resolution image bitmap export up to 1200 dpi – Word-compatible and PDF document export.
There is a wide range of optional modules for advanced and specialized applications. For example the Grains & Particles module includes multiple complementary methods for analyzing grains, particles, islands and surface morphology. The 4D Analysis module which can be used to denoise a series of SEM images using Principal Component Analysis.
Analyze grains, particles, islands, motifs, bumps, holes using multiple methods
Grains & Particles module
Read AFM/SPM file formats, work with multi-channel SPM images, correct data acquisition errors
SPM Extension module
Filter series of images, analyze 4D surface evolution
4D Analysis module
Advanced studies, parameters & filters for roughness analysis
3D Advanced Surface Texture module
FFT-based texture analysis, advanced FFT filtering, multi-scale analysis by wavelets
3D Fourier and Wavelets Analysis module
Advanced dimensioning and tolerancing, DXF CAD compare
Advanced Contour Analysis module
Automated statistics for multiple data populations, process capability
Advanced profile filtering, fractal and Fourier analysis, series of profiles
2D Advanced Surface Texture module
Increase field of view by automatically stitching together measured surfaces that overlap on the horizontal plane
Surface Stitching module
Denoising a series of SEM images – using principle component analysis in the 4D Analysis module. Images courtesy of LNE (French National Metrology Institute).